The Three Wise Women of Santa Fe

by Laura Gonzales, Education & Volunteer Manager

Hello from your History Herald!

The Three Wise Women of Santa FeYou may be familiar with the Paloheimo name, Leonora and Y.A., the founders of our museum, but did you know that Leonora comes from a line of pretty remarkable women? Eva Scott Fényes, her daughter Leonora Scott Muse Curtin, and granddaughter Leonora Curtin Paloheimo were highly accomplished in the arts, science, business, and cultural preservation, leaving their mark on Santa Fe. The lives of these three women, spanning over 150 years, were champions of cultural preservation in the Southwest and together created a pretty remarkable female dynasty.

Fényes was the daughter of a New York publisher. Her first husband, U.S. Marine Corps general W.S. Muse, was Leonora’s father. Her second husband was Hungarian nobleman and physician Adalbert Fényes. She first visited New Mexico in the 1880s and was quickly enthralled by its rich Spanish and Native American art and history. Their first home in Pasadena, California, is now the Pasadena Museum of History. Later, with her daughter and granddaughter, she completed their Santa Fe residence at 614 Acequia Madre in 1926. It is filled with antique furniture and artwork from the Southwest and Finland, as well as Depression-era tinwork, textiles, and furniture made for the Native Market cooperative, subsidized by Leonora Paloheimo. It was dubbed “the house of the three wise women” by friend, Charles Lummis, the famous journalist and preservationist.

Eva Scott Fenyes in Egypt
Eva Scott Fenyes in Egypt

Eva was an accomplished artist, leaving behind hundreds of watercolor pieces, mostly of Southwestern adobe structures. She was also talented in oil painting, learning the art from famous American artist Sanford Gifford, who taught her while sailing the Nile during one of her tours of Egypt in 1869. Many of these works now reside in the Acequia Madre archives.

Her daughter, Leonora Scott Muse, married Santa Fe lawyer Thomas E. Curtin. After his death, she and her young daughter, the second Leonora, accompanied Eva on her world travels, developing their own passions and talents. During her childhood the youngest Leonora made frequent trips to Santa Fe with her mother and grandmother where she learned Spanish and developed a deep love and appreciation for local culture. Like her mother and grandmother before her, Leonora had a preservationist spirit and wanted to see the beautiful traditions of Santa Fe life maintained and celebrated. In Santa Fe, the two Leonoras were founding members of the Spanish Colonial Arts Society and purchased the La Cienega property that eventually became El Rancho de las Golondrinas.

Leonora Curtin was a student of Native American and Spanish-American Herbology and wrote the books Healing Herbs of the Upper Rio Grande and By the Prophet of the Earth. She was a talented ethnobotanist during a time when you didn’t see a lot of women in science. Leonora Paloheimo researched Native American languages for the Smithsonian Institution, and during the 1930s started Native Market to provide an outlet for the works of local craftsmen.

Leonora Curtin
Leonora Curtin

In 1933 Leonora and her mother purchased Las Golondrinas for $15,000, paying the first $13,500 in cash and the rest in 200 sheep (how New Mexican of them)! She said there was “no plan to live at the ranch; it was to be a retreat where they could escape from the pressures of a too-active life in town and refresh themselves in the primitive simplicities of the country.” In 1945 she met Finnish Diplomat, Y.A. Paloheimo. The couple were soon married, and Y.A. quickly fell in love with the Ranch. By the 1960s Las Golondrinas had become a family home and year-round farm and ranch.

Through the years they worked to restore the historic structures to their former brilliance. It was during an afternoon stroll, while admiring the beauty and charm, that Y.A. was struck with the idea to develop an open air, living history museum, and El Rancho de las Golondrinas was born!

Opened in 1972, this year marks 48 years of preserving the beautiful history and culture of New Mexico and it still remains the perfect place to “escape the pressures of a too-active life.”

History Herald: Smokey Bear, a New Mexico Hero!

by Laura Gonzales, Education & Volunteer Manager

Hello from your History Herald!

Smokey BearDid you know that in 1950, in the Capitan Mountains of New Mexico, crews discovered a major wildfire driven by strong wind? As the crew battled to contain the blaze they received a report of a lone bear cub seen wandering near the fire line. Suddenly, the firefighters were caught directly in the path of the fire storm. They survived by lying face down on a rock bed for over an hour as the fire burned past them. Nearby, the little cub had not fared as well. He took refuge in a tree that became completely charred, escaping with his life, but also badly burned paws and hind legs. The crew removed the cub from the tree and a rancher among the crew agreed to take him home. A New Mexico Department of Game and Fish ranger heard about the cub and drove to the rancher’s home to help get the cub on a plane to Santa Fe, where his burns were treated and bandaged.

News about the little bear spread swiftly throughout the state. Soon, the United Press and Associated Press broadcasted his story nationwide and many responded, inquiring about the cub’s recovery. The state game warden wrote to the chief of the National Forest Service, offering to present the cub to the agency as long as the cub would be dedicated to a conservation and wildfire prevention publicity program. The cub was soon on his way to the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., becoming the living symbol we know and love, Smokey Bear. Smokey received numerous gifts of honey, and so many letters that they dedicated a private zip code just for him!


He remained at the zoo until his death in 1976, when he was returned to his home to be buried at the Smokey Bear Historical Park in Capitan, New Mexico, where he continues to be a wildfire prevention legend. In 1952, the popular anthem was written, and due to the song’s popularity and the addition of “the” between his name, Smokey Bear has been called “Smokey the Bear” by many adoring fans, but, in actuality, his name never changed. He’s still simply, Smokey Bear.

Now that summer is in full swing and outdoor adventure beckons, please remember to enjoy the outdoors responsibly so that together we may protect this beautiful state and all who call her home!

Learn more about Smokey at

Sources and Resources for at-home learning:

Rollin’ Bones: The History of Dice

by Laura Gonzales, Education & Volunteer Manager 

Hello from your History Herald! “Play is the highest form of research.” – Albert Einstein.

When you were a kid did you ever play “bones”? Ever wonder why dice (and often dominoes, which are also called “tiles”) are called “bones”? You guessed it! Because they were originally made from the ankle bones of animals. Early civilizations used bones, hooves and horns from animals like sheep or deer. Carved into cubes, small circles were then inscribed on the bone dice to delineate the differing sides. Did you know that those small circles actually have a name? The dots on dice are called “pips.” Did you further know that on a 6-sided dice, opposite sides always add up to lucky number 7?!

Dice are some of the oldest gaming implements known to mankind, dating back at least 5,000 years! Some of the oldest known dice were discovered at an archaeological site in the Middle East as part of a Backgammon set. But the first dice throwers weren’t gamers, they were religious figures who used them, as well as rocks, sticks, or even animal entrails, for fortune-telling. The journey from divination to gaming is unknown, but it seems that since the outcome of fortune-telling was complex, and well, a gamble, it made sense for them to “roll” into the gaming scene.

Dice games eventually made their way into New Mexico, where pieces were crafted from bone or wood until manufactured dice were brought over during the latter part of the 19th century. Like marbles, quoits, pick-up six, jacks, and more, dice have been a favorite pastime for generations! Make sure that amid your at-home learning and hands-on history, you take some time to play!